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IEC standards for lithium batteries

Time : 2011-5-17 Hits : 4511 Font : Small Medium Larger [back]
IEC standards for lithium batteries
 
 
1. Introduction
      
Secondary lithium battery production in Japan has long been stereotyped pattern. However, in recent years has begun to cylindrical and siderite in the work of columnar cells. International Organization of electrical technology start preparing a new series of battery standards, including safety standards. Another On the one hand because of the capacity for the larger number of accidents caused by the second generation of lithium batteries to ensure the safety of the work is increasingly important. not to the past problems in the future to reproduce.
For the safety of secondary lithium batteries, rechargeable batteries need to learn the technical aspects of security and safety have been discharged rechargeable battery technology.
2. Overview
      
This approach introduces a battery manufacturers to complete the minimum safety standards. The policy applies to spiral electrode and the hierarchical structure of the cylindrical and diamond cylindrical batteries and these batteries as small hand-held power tools, capacity ranging from 100 5000mAh . The guidelines have been produced for some of the battery cell manufacturers also apply in the future will begin to apply.
This approach by the various insecure mode assumption assessment tests to determine and improve the safety and quality.
Second, the second generation of lithium batteries assessment guidance
1. The purpose of the battery
In this guidance manual for sampling cells for small portable tools, secondary lithium batteries.
(* 1): In these examples, energy refers to the movement of electric power tools, it does not include some of the backup memory.
Previously widely used in lithium battery market is not included in the manual, because the smaller model of the battery, they limit the current through the capacitance is also smaller, so safety considerations from the risk factor is negligible.
In this manual, the requirements of secondary lithium batteries are the following categories:
(1) as a portable electrical power for electric tools
(2) hierarchical structure of the spiral electrode and the cylindrical and cylindrical batteries Ling
(3) cylindrical battery the size of the D and N,
(4) Link capacity cylindrical battery 100 to 5000mAh
(5) can only be a battery, including the collection of batteries
(* 2) The battery is included in this collection because at this stage, difficult to set requirements or that the battery shape, structure and size. A collection of cells suitable brochure will be the next stage of preparation.
2. Manual essentials
Arrangements for the safety assessment process is in normal use the battery, or in the foreseeable operating methods are not among them, or the operation of special circumstances, such as battery charger failure, battery failure using the tool. The program also introduces some normal use in the case of misconduct can be avoided. safety assessment is divided into three categories, each of which has detailed steps:
(1) electrical performance test
(2) Mechanical performance test
(3) environmental performance testing
The results of the standard human body according to the risk of harm does not happen to decide. In these steps, each test battery for selection five samples, which is given to the number sufficient to determine the battery safety.
4. Assessment Test Project
4.1 (1) electrical testing
Conditions of the test item temperature of the battery charge state assessment test method standards
1. External circuit is fully charged, the battery has just completed production of 60 ℃ ambient temperature of the wire through the resistance less than 50mΩ more than 6 hours in the short poles did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
2. Forcibly discharge a fully charged battery has just finished production of the normal room temperature according to the manufacturer's recommended depth of discharge current to force 250% of computing capacity .* If the testing process to achieve security or protection, to terminate the test did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
3. A continuous charging completely discharged battery has just finished production of the normal room temperature according to the manufacturer's recommended method of charging and the voltage specified for 28 days without an explosion, no fire, no phenomenon of the phenomenon of split
4. Overcharge fully discharge the battery has just finished production of the normal room temperature recommended by manufacturers to calculate current charge capacity of 250% .* If the testing process to achieve security or protection, to terminate the test did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
5. High current charging fully discharged battery has just finished production of the normal room temperature according to the manufacturer's recommended charge current to charge the battery 3 times to calculate the current capacity of more than 100% did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
4.1 (2) Ⅰ mechanical properties
Conditions of the test item temperature battery charging status assessment test method standards
1. Vibration fully charged or fully discharged battery has just finished production of the normal room temperature, the battery in three directions XYZ 90-100 minutes vibration amplitude of 0.8mm, the frequency is 10HZ, the frequency change was 1HZ/min. Test, complete discharge of the battery will be charged to full capacity recommended by the manufacturer. no explosion, no fire, no deformation of the phenomenon
2. Accelerometer is fully charged or fully discharged battery has just finished production of the normal speed at room temperature in units of time in the initial 3 milliseconds, the average acceleration of 75g (g for the acceleration of gravity units), reach the top is 125-175g. In every a direction perpendicular vibration of XYZ. tests, fully discharged battery will be charged to the manufacturer's recommended capacity. no explosion, no fire, no deformation of the phenomenon
3. Fall fully charged or fully discharged battery has just completed the normal production of 1.9m high place at room temperature from free fall to the concrete floor 10 times. Test, the fully discharged battery will be charged to the manufacturer's recommended capacity. Did not explode, phenomenon did not fire
4.1 (2) Ⅱ test conditions of temperature, battery charge state project evaluation test method standards
4. A nail through the battery is fully charged battery has just finished production of the normal room temperature of 2.5 to 5mm diameter nail through the center longitudinal axis of the battery into the battery * will be the nail in 6h. There is no explosion, no fire phenomena
5. Extruding a fully charged battery has just finished production of the battery on the normal room temperature between two pieces of flat iron to make the battery and the flat iron parallel to the longitudinal axis of the heart, the pressure of 13kN applied to give the battery did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
6. The impact is fully charged, the battery has just finished production of the normal room temperature to a cylindrical wooden pole (diameter 7.9mm) over the top of the battery, and battery longitudinal axis perpendicular to the heart rather .9.1 kg weight from 61cm height fall. Did not explode, phenomenon did not fire
7.10m drop a fully charged battery has just finished production of the normal room temperature, any place from the 10m high drop to concrete floor the battery. Did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
4.1 (3) Ⅰ environmental performance testing
Conditions of the test item temperature of the battery charge state assessment test method standards
1. High-temperature storage is fully charged, the battery has just finished production of (a) the oven at 100 ℃ for 5 hours after the batteries are stored on the local temperature is 20 ℃ placed 24h (b) the oven at 60 ℃ for 30 days in storage placed in the battery temperature of 20 ℃ for 24 hours where there is no explosion, no fire phenomena
2. Heat production of the conflict has just completed a fully charged battery within 2 hours after 10 consecutive cycles at -20 ℃ and 40 ℃ -20 ℃ to move the battery from the place where 60 ℃, and the replacement time is not in 5 minutes explosion, no fire, no damage, no deformation of the phenomenon
3. Low-voltage fully charged battery at room temperature has just finished production of the battery placed in the absolute pressure equal to or less than 11.6kpa, for 6 hours did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
4.1 (3) Ⅱ environmental performance testing (misconduct) test conditions, the battery temperature, charge state project evaluation test method standards
4. Heat warming a fully charged battery has just finished production of the battery into the oven for 5 ± 2 ℃ / min heating rate until 130 ℃. Then the battery out of the oven 60 minutes or so. Did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
5. Drop to the water, a fully charged battery has just finished production of the battery immersed in water at room temperature (room temperature) 24 hours did not explode, the phenomenon did not fire
Definition
Fully charged: To achieve the manufacturers of computing capacity specified in the manufacturer's recommended charging conditions (including current, voltage, temperature, time, etc.), charging the battery. Moreover, the time requirements of the battery is charged within a week.
Fully discharge: discharge recommended by the manufacturer under the conditions (including current, temperature, etc.), according to a specified discharge voltage of the battery discharge. And the time requirements of the battery is discharged within a week.
Has just finished production of the battery: the battery requirement is less than a month after production, and is receiving less than XX charge and discharge cycles.
Cell cycle: the conditions recommended by manufacturers of continuous battery charge, discharge, and discharge capacity of the battery manufacturers specify the computing capacity has dropped by 40% to 60%.
Indoor temperature: In the test, at room temperature is 20 ± 5 ℃, which is normal room temperature, this setting is to be based on a simple test environment.
Explosion: an explosion is the internal battery or the battery within the housing part of the scattering mass was split and cause an explosion or damage.
Fire: the fire is burning because of the battery caused by internal combustion or fire.
Valve operation: safety valve operation means that the battery discharge during normal use (the battery internal pressure release to the outside world).
Deformation: deformation means the battery is caused by external pressure or internal pressure significantly shape, visual distortion.
4.2 the number of tests
In the standard test is to assess the safety level, the following number is required by purpose. The number of project requirements for each test: n = 5
4.3 explained
4.3.1 Electrical performance test
1. External short circuit
When the positive and negative ends are short (with a wire or metal for resistance), the foreseeable risk of a battery will suddenly of fever, due to large current flow, the battery temperature. If the temperature exceeds the capacity of the battery , the battery will explode or catch fire.
This test assumes that the battery method of handling or incorrect use of external short-circuit caused by the battery, which is why you want to test the temperature set at 60 ℃, because they want to ensure that the battery in the thermostat and heating due to external short circuit will remain in safe condition. This temperature requirement is in accordance with UL `S external short-circuit may be (UL1642).'s largest resistor (50mΩ) by the IEC National Committee of Japan (TC35/WG8) and specify the estimated value.
2. Forcibly discharge (reversible process)
Discharge of the battery due to external force or because of wrong to force reverse charge, which leads to a foreseeable risk are: the battery normal chemical reaction that causes the internal pressure, temperature. If the operation over, the battery explosion or fire.
This test assumes that such a situation: the battery back for being mistakenly connected to a charger, or in a combination of batteries in a battery of low capacity, then discharge the battery pack, low-capacity battery that will support will be forced discharge (when the old and new batteries or different battery capacity in a battery box, it will happen) manufacturers in accordance with UL `S's forced discharge test conditions recommended by the current, the battery discharge capacity of 250% of the calculated .
When the battery with the safety, protection of property, the current changes do not occur because of these features, you can indicate the identity of the battery, and can not continue testing.
3. Continuous charge
When more than limit the battery can withstand continuous charging the battery, it is foreseeable risk of a battery charging excessive pressure within the electrolyte led to decomposition.
If the internal pressure exceeds a certain limit, the battery will explode.
This test assumes normal battery charger is connected to the charging operation.
Continuous charging the time set for a month because of the battery after fully charging is finished, the normal operation of the charger will be provided according to the design value less current, so the time set for the month, so that a continuous battery fully charged.
4. Charging excessive
When the voltage rises above the battery can bear the restrictions caused by charging excessive, foreseeable risks are: battery charging increase in internal pressure cause chemical reactions or normal temperature fever, the result, the battery explosion or fire.
This test assumes a situation: the charger is not functioning properly, especially its voltage control circuit out of control.
Because the charger current control is assumed to be normal operation, and thus the value for the current recommended by the manufacturer, and will charge capacity as 250% of computing capacity than the battery under consideration in the limit, excess charging to ensure safety.
If the battery with the safety, protection, current changes do not occur, to their state identity, nor do they need further testing.
5. High current charging
Due to large current when the battery is charging, the risk of a foreseeable result of Joule heating to temperature, if the temperature rises above permissions, the battery will explode, catch fire.
This test assumes a situation: the charger is not working properly, especially the charger control settings out of control, in this test, the current is set by manufacturers to provide three times the current value (this value has reached the limit), because even if the current controller failed because the internal resistance of the charger and the output capacity is due, will not let another large current passed.
Also, charge capacity is specified as 100%, because this test to check a large current flows.
If the battery with the safety, protection, current changes do not occur, to their state identity, nor do they need further testing.
4.3.2 Ⅰ mechanical performance test
1. Vibration
When the battery is vibrated, the risk was foreseeable: the battery inside the connector piece broken off from the connection point of the active substance or off, resulting in direct contact with the electrode (in short), this reaction will be accelerated, and more than a certain limit, the battery because the hypertension will be an explosion or fire.
This test assumes a situation: the battery or the user in the transport methods used by the vibration inappropriate. The reference to other standard test methods, such as: UL, DOT, LATA and so on.
The test should be fully discharged state at the electrode is fully discharged state because easier to move, so the battery is more easily damaged by vibration, and, after completing the test and then charge the battery, this damage is more apparent.
2. Acceleration
When the battery is subject to impact, and vibration foreseeable risk of the same sample.
This test is to assume that during transport, the risk of the battery by bumps or because of user errors will continue to drop the battery.
This test is with reference to DOT, LATA standard
If the battery with the safety, protection, current changes do not occur, to their state identity, nor do they need further testing.
3. Fall
When the battery is the risk of fall can be expected in the sample vibration with the same battery. The test assumes that because a person's failure caused the battery drops, the height of the battery drops accused of 1.9m, this is just ordinary people handle the high lift height.
If the battery with the safety, protection, current changes do not occur, to their state identity, nor do they need further testing.
4.3.2i incorrect behavior tests
4. Nail through the battery by mistake and put a nail through the wrong battery, will be the positive and negative directly connected, leading to an external short circuit, the battery will generate heat due to a sudden reaction and explosion, fire.
This test assumes a situation: the battery in the box, false to nail through the battery, or assume that the internal short-circuit conditions to achieve the safety assessment.
In this manual, these tests are incorrect behavior or internal short-circuit hypothesis.
5. Extrusion
When the battery is subject to strong pressure from the foreseeable risk of extrusion of positive and negative space narrowing, and, positive and negative may be caused by direct contact within the circuit. Battery may explode or catch fire.
This test assumes the battery has been squeezed by the strong pressure, such as cars. In this test, the extrusion conditions of the car as a 13kN load is feasible, and is a reference to UL1642.
6. Impact
Due to gravity, the battery was very sudden impact or fall to the battery when the weight of material, the risk can be expected are: an internal short-circuit the battery occurred.
This test assumes that a significant mass of an object falling in the battery, the object will give a strong impact in certain parts of the battery. This test refer to UL.
7.10M fall
When the battery drops down from a high place, the risk can be expected are: the impact of the drop, the battery is pressed, end the battery would explode or catch fire.
Hypothesis in this test battery from a high place such as roof or room windows.
In this test, the battery dropped the height to 10M, the height of the windows than the average house fell down even more serious.
4.3.3 Ⅰ performance test environment
1. High Temperature Storage
When the battery is placed in the wrong place high temperatures, the risk can be expected are: battery heat due to temperature changes, positive and negative integration between the polymer partition can not be separated between two poles, results, due to short circuit within the contact poles. So, the battery Internal sudden reaction, if overheated, the battery may explode or catch fire.
This test assumes a situation: When the battery or battery heating due to external temperature was set at the meter in the car, direct exposure to sunlight in the summer heat, or failure of temperature control settings, leaving room temperature.
2. Heat rise
When the battery is very powerful and after a period of rapid temperature changes, the risk can be expected are: the impact of temperature changes due to polymer composition, due to the different coefficient of expansion so that the composition of polymer and metal deformation or damage.
This test assumes a situation: the battery in a very short period of time after a rapid temperature changes, such as the battery suddenly moved indoors from the outside, especially near the fire next to the indoor or outdoor in the winter to move from the interior.
According to MIL and JIS standards, in this test, the exchange of time-less than 15 minutes.
3. Low
When the battery at very high altitudes where the ambient pressure is very low, such as air transport, the risk can be expected are: the Department for sealing the battery within the substances to be destroyed blasting or friction, which cause an explosion or fire.
The test assumes that the battery on the plane transportation, not pressure, is 50,000 feet high in the low-voltage very environment.
The test with reference to the following standards: DOT, ICAO and LATA.
4.3.3 Ⅱ test improperly
When the battery is over-heating, the risk can be expected are: positive and negative integration between the polymer partition, polarization can not be separated from contact with each other, the results of the reaction, the battery will explode or catch fire.
In this test, assuming the battery is placed close to heat sources, or, because of incorrect behavior, such as the battery on the car dashboard, direct sunlight or failure of the test set and thus control the indoor temperature.
This test will be set to 130 degrees temperature is taken into account in abnormal circumstances, such as the failure of the temperature control is set below the maximum temperature of 120 degrees.
5. Fall in the water
When the battery is submerged in water, the risk can be expected are: high-voltage battery positive terminal dissolution occurred, and then sealing the battery is damaged, water can also enter the cell and reacts within the battery, the battery would explode due to heat or fire.
This test is the assumption that the battery into the water because of errors
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